San Marino

1 Recognition of the Genocide

1.1 Recognition, official texts

San Marino does not officially recognise the Genocide of the Roma.

1.2 Data (camps locations, Remembrance places, measures etc.)

In San Marino, there is no accurate data on the Genocide of the Roma.

During the Second World War, San Marino remained neutral. Three days after the fall of Benito Mussolini in Italy, the Partito Fascista Sammarinese (PFS)’s rule collapsed and the new government declared neutrality in the conflict. The Fascists regained power on 1st April 1944 but kept neutrality intact. San Marino accepted thousands of civilian refugees when Allied forces went over the Gothic Line. In September 1944, it was briefly occupied by German forces, who were successfully attacked by Allied forces in the Battle of San Marino. Allied troops withdrew from the country shortly afterwards. Although in modern times any Jewish connection with San Marino was sporadic, the tiny republic obediently enacted racial laws, in imitation of Italy, against the dozen Jewish families who had moved there in recent years. They were repealed on the fall of Mussolini in the summer of 1943. In 1944 San Marino became a refuge for over 100 000 civilians, mostly from Italy (among them a significant number of Jews), an enormous effort to a country that at that time only had 15,000 inhabitants.

1.3 Specialised institution, commission, research centre etc., dealing with this issue

The Archivio di Stato della Repubblica di San Marino are the national archives of San Marino. They have holdings on the Second World War period. But it does not specifically deal with the Genocide of the Roma.

1.4 Official initiatives (campaigns, actions, projects, commemoration days, museums)

San Marino marks the International Holocaust Remembrance Day on 27th January.

No official initiative related to the Genocide of the Roma has been reported in San Marino.

2 Teaching about the Genocide of the Roma

2.1 Inclusion of the topic in the school curriculum

There is no information about the inclusion of the Genocide of the Roma in school curriculum.

2.2 Inclusion of the topic in the school textbooks

There is no information about the inclusion of the Roma Genocide in the school textbooks.

2.3 Training of teachers and education professionals

There is no information regarding the training of teachers regarding the Genocide of the Roma.

2.4 Particular activities undertaken at the level of education institutions

No particular initiative related to the Genocide of the Roma has been reported in San Marino.

2.5 Remembrance day

San Marino marks the International Holocaust Remembrance Day on 27th January but it is unknown if Roma victims are included.

3 Official contacts and resource persons

3.1 Responsible person in the Ministry of Education

There is no responsible person for the teaching of the Genocide of the Roma in the Ministry of Education.

Napoleone Bonaparte 3
47890 San Marino
Telephone: 0549 882425
Fax: 0549 8825545

3.2 Resource persons - list of experts and historians

4 Initiatives of the civil society

4.1 Relevant projects having a real impact on the people and/or the wide public

No relevant initiative from the civil society concerning the Genocide of the Roma has been reported.

5 Point of view of the Roma community - including survivors' testimonies