Russian Federation

Researches, virtual bibliographies: 

Documents of German punitive agencies, Soviet documents and the historic memory of the inhabitants of the Smolensk region, Leningrad region and some other regions of Russia contain information about mass Roma extermination by Nazi German occupants from 1941 to 1944. These were intentional crimes rooted in the Nazi attitude towards Roma as racially inferior people. They led to the destruction of many Roma communities. Scientific research also confirms the facts of mass Roma extermination in the territories occupied by Nazi Germany and its allies, including the territory of the former Soviet Union, which has recently allowed scientists, researchers and journalists to speak about the genocide of Roma during World War II.

Martin HOLLER studied history and Slavic (Polish and Russian) literature in Heidelberg, Moscow, Warsaw and Berlin. In 2006 he had a PhD dissertation in modern history on the “Soviet Politics of Nationalities, using the example of the Romanies (Gypsies), 1923-1939”. During his archival research in Moscow, Smolensk and Saint Petersburg, he was also collecting materials on Gypsy history in the Soviet Union during and after the war, based on which he wrote a report “The National Socialist Genocide of the Roma in the German-occupied Soviet Union“, published in 2009.

„Genocide of European Roma (Gypsies), 1939–1945”, published on the website of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, says that German military and SS-police units also shot possibly at least 30,000 Roma in the Baltic States and elsewhere in the occupied Soviet Union, where Einsatzgruppen and other mobile killing units killed Roma at the same time that they killed Jews and Communists.

According to the site for teachers and students, Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, on eastern front, the gypsies were frequently executed (shot) as “spies”, “thieves”, “alien elements” or “partisans”. There was no systematic hunt for the gypsies (unlike the Jews). The German security detachments “only” shot the gypsies, when they encountered any.